# Series and parallel stacking of disc springs

Through parallel and series arrangements of individual disc springs, it is possible to realise higher spring loads and larger spring deflections.

Series stacks, will always return the same force. The deflection will vary depending on the ammount of springs used.

Parallel stacks, their deflection is constant, different forces are returned based on the ammount of springs used. Friction must be taken into account for this kind of stack.

It is also posible to combine both stacks.

Through stack combinations it is possible to make the spring the customer is looking for, in terms of the force returned by it and in terms of its deflection.

Series stacks F total = F individual
S total = i x S
Lo = i x lo

Being:
F = Force
S = Deflection
Lo = Total static height
lo = Individual static height
i = Number of discs stacked

Parallel stacks F total = n x F individual
S total = S
Lo = lo + (n-1) x t

Being:
n = Number of discs stacked
t = material thickness

Stacks combinations F total = n x F individual
S total = i x S
Lo = i x (lo + (n-1) x t)